Towards Understanding Revelation


Nicholas II1058-1061
Honorius II1061-1072Opposition Pope
Alexander II1061-1073
Gregory VII1073-1085
Clement III1073-1100Opposition Pope
Victor III1086-1087
Urban II1088-1099
First Crusade1095-1102Called for by Pope Urban II to recapture Jerusalem; Edessa, Antioch, Caesarea, Acre, and Jerusalem captured successfully
Paschal II1099-1118
Knights Hospitaler 1113Recognized as a religious order by Pope Paschal II
Theodoric1100-1101Opposition Pope
Adalbert1101-1102Opposition Pope
Sylvester IV1105-1111Opposition Pope
Gelasius II1118-1119
Gregory VIII1118-1121Opposition Pope
Knights Templar~1119
Celestine II1124-1124Opposition Pope
Honorius II1124-1130
Innocent II1130-1143
Anacletus II1130-1138Opposition Pope
Victor IV1138-1138Opposition Pope
Celestine II1143-1144
Lucius II1144-1145
IMAD AD-DIN ZANGI12/24/1144Leads the Muslim Seljuk Turks to capture Edessa
Eugene III1145-1153
Second Crusade1147-1149Called for by Pope Eugene III to retake Edessa; unsuccessful; much of Moorish Spain is recaptured; Muslims take Antioch
Anastasius IV1153-1154
Adrian IV1154-1159
Alexander III1159-1181
Victor IV1159-1164Opposition Pope
Paschal III1164-1168Opposition Pope
Calixtus III1168-1178Opposition Pope
SALADINReign: 1174-1193Kurdish Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Innocent III1179-1180Opposition Pope
Lucius III1181-1185
Urban III1185-1187
SALADINOctober 1187Took Jerusalem
Gregory VIII1187-1187Calls for Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem
Clement III1187-1191
Third Crusade1189-1192Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I drowns in a river on the way to crusade; Richard the Lionheart captures Cyprus, Acre, Jaffa, defeats Saladin but doesn’t take Jerusalem; he is shipwrecked on the way home and taken prisoner by German emperor Henry VI
Celestine III1191-1198
The German Crusade1197-1198Led by Roman Emperor Henry VI, captures Beirut; crusade ends with the death of Henry VI
Innocent III1198-1216
Order of Teutonic Knights1198Officially sanctioned by Pope Innocent III; Pope Innocent III called for Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade1202-1204Formed to recapture Jerusalem, but attacks and sacks Constantinopole instead
Albigensian Crusade1209-1229Against Cathars heretics in southern France
Homorius III1216-1227
The Children’s Crusade1212Nicholas of Cologne leads a children’s army to Jerusalem but many die of hunger crossing the Italian Alps and the Pope tells them to go home
Fifth Crusade1217-1221Called for by Pope Innocent III in 1215; was called to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; unsuccessful, wind up surrendering
Gregory IX1227-1241
Sixth Crusade1228-1229Called by Roman Emperor Frederick II; achieves control of Jerusalem through Treaty of Jaffa
Celestine IV1241-1241
Interregnum1241-1243Nothing is known about why it took so long to elect a new pope. Celestine IV was elected in October of 1241 and died in November of the same year. Pope Innocent IV was elected in June of 1243.
Innocent IV1243-1254
LOUIS IX, KING OF FRANCE1244Louis takes up the cross and vows to go on Crusade
AL-SALIH1245-1249Sultan of Egypt and Syria
AL-SALIH1247Captures Escalon from the Franks
Seventh Crusade1248-1254Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis is captured and then released
Alexander IV1254-1261
Urban IV1261-1264
Clement IV1265-1268
Interregnum1268-1271Almost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Eighth Crusade1270Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis dies of dysentery in Tunis, crusade is abandoned, many ships lost in a storm on the way home.
Gregory X1171-1176
Innocent V1276-1276
Adrian V1276-1276
John XXI1276-1277
Nicholas III1277-1280
Martin IV1281-1285
Honorus IV1285-1287
Nicholas IV1288-1292
MAMLUK SULTANATE1291Acre is taken and Jerusalem is absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate
Interregnum1292-1294Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Celectine V1294-1294
Boniface VIII1294-1303
Benedict XI1303-1304
Clement V1305-1314
Knights Templar1312Pope Clement V officially abolishes Knights Templar
Interregnum1314-1316Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
John XXII1316-1334

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