Good morning! Here we are, heading into the Renaissance!

In 1455, Gutenberg printed his 42-line, Gutenberg Bible. We now begin to see the fruit of this: we are going to notice a change in how the Bible is discussed. This is mostly because the Bible started to be cheaper to buy and was starting to find it’s way into the hands of priests, ministers, the wealthy, the middle class, and even the literate poor as the Renaissance goes on.

The other key reason for the Bible being increasingly well disseminated is that it was finally being translated into vernacular languages.  In 1380, John Wycliffe (1329-1384) took it upon himself to translate the Bible into English. It was an exact translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible; exact in the sense that it was clunky and often didn’t make sense in English. In 1388, after Wycliffe’s death, it was revised by John Purvey to read more smoothly. Of course, the Wycliffe Bible was a hand-copied bible that was still far too expensive for the common man (even if he was literate)…and, it was immediately banned in England and by the Church. Wycliffe died of a stroke while saying Mass in 1384. That was fortunate for him. Shortly after that, the Church excommunicated him posthumously and started burning his followers at the stake, often with a copy of the Wycliffe Bible tied around their necks. They even dug up Wycliffe’s bones, burned them and scattered them. Meanwhile, the bans in England just made the Bible a more popular book, and made people want to learn to read so they could see what all the excitement was about. The New Testament of the Wycliffe Bible was printed in 1731, and the whole Bible, with critical commentary, was finally printed in 1850. Of course, by that time it was more of a curiosity than a serious Bible.

Martin Luther released his New Testament in German in 1522, and then released the full Bible in 1534. William Tyndale got a copy of Luther’s New Testament and started translating the Bible around 1522 as well, starting with the New Testament from the Greek and the Latin Vulgate. While on the run from the Church, he managed to print 6,000 copies of the New Testament in 1526. He succeeded in translating 5 books of the Old Testament before his location was betrayed to the Church in 1534, and he was subsequently strangled and burned at the stake for the crime of ‘producing a Bible in the vernacular.’

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Nicholas II1058-1061
Honorius II1061-1072Opposition Pope
Alexander II1061-1073
Gregory VII1073-1085
Clement III1073-1100Opposition Pope
Victor III1086-1087
Urban II1088-1099
First Crusade1095-1102Called for by Pope Urban II to recapture Jerusalem; Edessa, Antioch, Caesarea, Acre, and Jerusalem captured successfully
Paschal II1099-1118
Knights Hospitaler 1113Recognized as a religious order by Pope Paschal II
Theodoric1100-1101Opposition Pope
Adalbert1101-1102Opposition Pope
Sylvester IV1105-1111Opposition Pope
Gelasius II1118-1119
Gregory VIII1118-1121Opposition Pope
Knights Templar~1119
Celestine II1124-1124Opposition Pope
Honorius II1124-1130
Innocent II1130-1143
Anacletus II1130-1138Opposition Pope
Victor IV1138-1138Opposition Pope
Celestine II1143-1144
Lucius II1144-1145
IMAD AD-DIN ZANGI12/24/1144Leads the Muslim Seljuk Turks to capture Edessa
Eugene III1145-1153
Second Crusade1147-1149Called for by Pope Eugene III to retake Edessa; unsuccessful; much of Moorish Spain is recaptured; Muslims take Antioch
Anastasius IV1153-1154
Adrian IV1154-1159
Alexander III1159-1181
Victor IV1159-1164Opposition Pope
Paschal III1164-1168Opposition Pope
Calixtus III1168-1178Opposition Pope
SALADINReign: 1174-1193Kurdish Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Innocent III1179-1180Opposition Pope
Lucius III1181-1185
Urban III1185-1187
SALADINOctober 1187Took Jerusalem
Gregory VIII1187-1187Calls for Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem
Clement III1187-1191
Third Crusade1189-1192Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I drowns in a river on the way to crusade; Richard the Lionheart captures Cyprus, Acre, Jaffa, defeats Saladin but doesn’t take Jerusalem; he is shipwrecked on the way home and taken prisoner by German emperor Henry VI
Celestine III1191-1198
The German Crusade1197-1198Led by Roman Emperor Henry VI, captures Beirut; crusade ends with the death of Henry VI
Innocent III1198-1216
Order of Teutonic Knights1198Officially sanctioned by Pope Innocent III; Pope Innocent III called for Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade1202-1204Formed to recapture Jerusalem, but attacks and sacks Constantinopole instead
Albigensian Crusade1209-1229Against Cathars heretics in southern France
Homorius III1216-1227
The Children’s Crusade1212Nicholas of Cologne leads a children’s army to Jerusalem but many die of hunger crossing the Italian Alps and the Pope tells them to go home
Fifth Crusade1217-1221Called for by Pope Innocent III in 1215; was called to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; unsuccessful, wind up surrendering
Gregory IX1227-1241
Sixth Crusade1228-1229Called by Roman Emperor Frederick II; achieves control of Jerusalem through Treaty of Jaffa
Celestine IV1241-1241
Interregnum1241-1243Nothing is known about why it took so long to elect a new pope. Celestine IV was elected in October of 1241 and died in November of the same year. Pope Innocent IV was elected in June of 1243.
Innocent IV1243-1254
LOUIS IX, KING OF FRANCE1244Louis takes up the cross and vows to go on Crusade
AL-SALIH1245-1249Sultan of Egypt and Syria
AL-SALIH1247Captures Escalon from the Franks
Seventh Crusade1248-1254Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis is captured and then released
Alexander IV1254-1261
Urban IV1261-1264
Clement IV1265-1268
Interregnum1268-1271Almost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Eighth Crusade1270Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis dies of dysentery in Tunis, crusade is abandoned, many ships lost in a storm on the way home.
Gregory X1171-1176
Innocent V1276-1276
Adrian V1276-1276
John XXI1276-1277
Nicholas III1277-1280
Martin IV1281-1285
Honorus IV1285-1287
Nicholas IV1288-1292
MAMLUK SULTANATE1291Acre is taken and Jerusalem is absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate
Interregnum1292-1294Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Celectine V1294-1294
Boniface VIII1294-1303
Benedict XI1303-1304
Clement V1305-1314
Knights Templar1312Pope Clement V officially abolishes Knights Templar
Interregnum1314-1316Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
John XXII1316-1334