7/23/22 FRA DOLCINO

Hi all! Things were starting to change as the fourteenth century opened. People, both clerical and laymen, were starting to rankle under the Church’s yoke.

Today we’ll look at Fra Dolcino, an Italian of unknown origin, who real name isn’t even known. Some people think he was the son of a rich family, but some (including the Church) claimed that he was the illegitimate son of a priest.

We’ll start with quotes from Bernard McGinn in VISIONS OF THE END:

“…about 1300 the forceful personality of Fra Dolcino was to make the fatal step from the mere preaching of apocalyptic ideas to armed resistance to the combined forces of Church and State. The Apostolic Brethren were one of the many movements of lay piety stressing poverty, preaching, and direct contact with God that sprang up in the later Middle Ages. Founded about 1260 by an unlettered layman, Gerard Segarelli of Parma, they were condemned by Popes Honorius IV and Nicholas IV for not adhering to the Church’s rules regarding the approbation of new religious orders. Segarelli was imprisoned by the Inquisition and executed in 1300. The new leader of the group, Fra Dolcino, the son of a priest from Novara, was a far more formidable figure. Dolcino had received some education and had been influenced at some time by the themes of Joachite speculation…The sequence of events is partially obscure, but by about 1304 Dolcino and his faithful followers had retired to the Alpine valleys to await the coming of the Last Emperor, whom they expected to slaughter the representatives of the carnal Church and usher in the fourth age, the time of the triumph of the Apostolic Brethren. Dolcino apparently came to identify himself with the Angelic Pope. It is difficult to know whether Dolcino was forced into open rebellion as his radical program became known, or whether he decided to take up arms as the vanguard of the avenging forces of the Final Emperor. Although the former option seems more likely, the armed resistance that the Brethren put up against the forces sent against them and the support that they received from the peasants of the Valsesia made them a prototype of later peasant insurrections. In March 1307 the Apostolic Brethren were decisively defeated in a pitched battle at Monte Rebello and many were slain. Dolcino, his consort Margarita, and about one hundred forty followers were captured. The leader was executed in unusually cruel fashion, even for the times — a sign of the strong views that medieval society took toward violent apocalypticism in action..”

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7/16/22 TABLE OF MEDIEVAL POPES, THE CRUSADES, ETC.

NAME OF POPE
OR OTHER
DATES OF REIGN
OR CRUSADE
NOTES
Nicholas II1058-1061
Honorius II1061-1072Opposition Pope
Alexander II1061-1073
Gregory VII1073-1085
Clement III1073-1100Opposition Pope
Victor III1086-1087
Urban II1088-1099
First Crusade1095-1102Called for by Pope Urban II to recapture Jerusalem; Edessa, Antioch, Caesarea, Acre, and Jerusalem captured successfully
Paschal II1099-1118
Knights Hospitaler 1113Recognized as a religious order by Pope Paschal II
Theodoric1100-1101Opposition Pope
Adalbert1101-1102Opposition Pope
Sylvester IV1105-1111Opposition Pope
Gelasius II1118-1119
Gregory VIII1118-1121Opposition Pope
Knights Templar~1119
Callixtus1119-1124
Celestine II1124-1124Opposition Pope
Honorius II1124-1130
Innocent II1130-1143
Anacletus II1130-1138Opposition Pope
Victor IV1138-1138Opposition Pope
Celestine II1143-1144
Lucius II1144-1145
IMAD AD-DIN ZANGI12/24/1144Leads the Muslim Seljuk Turks to capture Edessa
Eugene III1145-1153
Second Crusade1147-1149Called for by Pope Eugene III to retake Edessa; unsuccessful; much of Moorish Spain is recaptured; Muslims take Antioch
Anastasius IV1153-1154
Adrian IV1154-1159
Alexander III1159-1181
Victor IV1159-1164Opposition Pope
Paschal III1164-1168Opposition Pope
Calixtus III1168-1178Opposition Pope
SALADINReign: 1174-1193Kurdish Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Innocent III1179-1180Opposition Pope
Lucius III1181-1185
Urban III1185-1187
SALADINOctober 1187Took Jerusalem
Gregory VIII1187-1187Calls for Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem
Clement III1187-1191
Third Crusade1189-1192Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I drowns in a river on the way to crusade; Richard the Lionheart captures Cyprus, Acre, Jaffa, defeats Saladin but doesn’t take Jerusalem; he is shipwrecked on the way home and taken prisoner by German emperor Henry VI
Celestine III1191-1198
The German Crusade1197-1198Led by Roman Emperor Henry VI, captures Beirut; crusade ends with the death of Henry VI
Innocent III1198-1216
Order of Teutonic Knights1198Officially sanctioned by Pope Innocent III; Pope Innocent III called for Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade1202-1204Formed to recapture Jerusalem, but attacks and sacks Constantinopole instead
Albigensian Crusade1209-1229Against Cathars heretics in southern France
Homorius III1216-1227
The Children’s Crusade1212Nicholas of Cologne leads a children’s army to Jerusalem but many die of hunger crossing the Italian Alps and the Pope tells them to go home
Fifth Crusade1217-1221Called for by Pope Innocent III in 1215; was called to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; unsuccessful, wind up surrendering
Gregory IX1227-1241
Sixth Crusade1228-1229Called by Roman Emperor Frederick II; achieves control of Jerusalem through Treaty of Jaffa
Celestine IV1241-1241
Interregnum1241-1243Nothing is known about why it took so long to elect a new pope. Celestine IV was elected in October of 1241 and died in November of the same year. Pope Innocent IV was elected in June of 1243.
Innocent IV1243-1254
LOUIS IX, KING OF FRANCE1244Louis takes up the cross and vows to go on Crusade
AL-SALIH1245-1249Sultan of Egypt and Syria
AL-SALIH1247Captures Escalon from the Franks
Seventh Crusade1248-1254Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis is captured and then released
Alexander IV1254-1261
Urban IV1261-1264
Clement IV1265-1268
Interregnum1268-1271Almost three-year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Eighth Crusade1270Lead by Louis IX against Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt; not successful; Louis dies of dysentery in Tunis, crusade is abandoned, many ships lost in a storm on the way home.
Gregory X1171-1176
Innocent V1276-1276
Adrian V1276-1276
John XXI1276-1277
Nicholas III1277-1280
Martin IV1281-1285
Honorus IV1285-1287
Nicholas IV1288-1292
MAMLUK SULTANATE1291Acre is taken and Jerusalem is absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate
Interregnum1292-1294Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
Celectine V1294-1294
Boniface VIII1294-1303
Benedict XI1303-1304
Clement V1305-1314
Knights Templar1312Pope Clement V officially abolishes Knights Templar
Interregnum1314-1316Two year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
John XXII1316-1334